Sadeh Festival is one of the ancient rituals of Iran, which is held on the 100th day of the great winter, which coincides with the 10th of Bahman or “Aban Rooz”.
Ancient Iran is the birthplace of many festivals, each of which is based on the traditions and rituals of the people of that period, all of these ancient festivals were held to protect nature and the elements of the universe. The celebration of the Sadeh Festival begins in the evening of the tenth day or “Aban Rooz” of the month of Bahman with the lighting of firewood. In ancient times, this celebration was held on the 100th day of the great winter, which begins on the first of Aban (October) in the modern calendar.
This ritual has always been held in groups by all the people of the city and the country, and this celebration has been mentioned as a celebration of the cooperation of the martyrs. Zoroastrians of Yazd, Kerman, Fars, Khuzestan, and other provinces have celebrated and celebrated the Sadeh Festival, but in recent years, except in these cities, it is also held in some areas around Yazd. Although this festival is held among Zoroastrians, in fact, it is a national holiday and belongs to all Iranians. This celebration has been mentioned in many ancient historical and literary books, which shows the special importance of this celebration among the people.
History of Sadeh Festival
There is a lot of speculation about the history of this festival and it has been discussed in many historical and literary books, but only Ferdowsi has mentioned the story of Houshang Pishdadi and the origin of the fire. In Nowruznameh, the destruction of Zahhak and then the celebration of the resurrection of the people from oppression and tyranny of Zahhak is mentioned. Abu Rihan al-Biruni also attributed the first celebration of the Sadeh Festival to Ardeshir Babakan. However, today, despite the passage of thousands of years since the first Sadeh Festival, this national religion has not undergone many changes and we owe this issue to the attention of various ethnic groups in the center and south of Iran.
Ritual of Sadeh Festival
The people of the city have been holding hands for a long time, 5 days before they have been gathering piles of firewood in the pre-determined areas outside the city. Before the evening of the 10th of Bahman (January 31) or Aban Rooz, people gather around these cones raised from firewood called Sedeh. His wives are cooking, the people are eating nuts and snacks and they are having fun, and with the arrival of the evening of the priests, with fire in their hands and the whisper of Avesta, they are burning the centuries from all sides, after going around the wood three times. . Eventually people jump over the fire and some take some ashes for blessings and good fortune. Although in ancient times this ceremony was limited to lighting a fire, in recent years, music and Shahnameh reading have been added to it.
Sadeh in the other countries
The celebration of the Sadeh Festival belongs to all Persian speakers in the world and today is held in the United States and Sweden by Iranians and Zoroastrians living in them. Although in our official calendar there are still ancient celebrations, especially the celebration of the Sadeh Festival, with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the independence of Tajikistan, this celebration is included in the official calendar of the country and is held every year.